Caprivi Bantustan (Direct Administration from Pretoria, South Africa)

Before Bantustan Caprivi Strip was recovering from different administration first with British to German, then the British military rule, attached to British Bechuanaland Protectorate and lastly to the Union of South Africa that gave the Caprivi Strip Bantustan Status.

In 1972, the South African administration established the Eastern Caprivi Zipfel homeland (Bantustan) with its own flag, national anthem, and coat of arms. De facto remained under direct control of the South African government in Pretoria until 1980. Bantustan was the result of political aspirations of the people of the Caprivi who were eager for self - determination showing the zeal for independence which the South African government responded to by giving Caprivians the status. The evolution of these self-governing areas was seen as South Africa's answer to decolonisation. The formal establishment of the Caprivi was thus a logical of government which had long been in operation in the Territory even before the formal establishment.

1972 - Caprivi placed under Bantustan - by the South Africa Union government - Caprivi having their own legislative assembly or Council, national anthem, emblem and flag -making their own laws for their development. Realistically, Caprivians were happy with the arrangement to rule themselves.

1965 - The history of CANU and SWAPO tells a story of arbitrary detentions of Caprivians 1965  by SWAPO in  Tanzania and Zambia which began with the detention of George Mutwa and Alfred Tongo Nalishuwa at Kongwa for complaining that the Caprivians were being discriminated against by SWAPO.

1965 - Mr Muyongo and Mr Nujoma started becoming bitter rivals though President and vice President to the end when Mr Nujoma wanted to assassinate Mr Muyongo but survived  after being tipped by an Ovambo noble friend leading him to flee from Zambia.

1978 - Mr Muyongo asked the SWAPO leadership why the Caprivians were discriminated particularly in terms of education scholarship, ranks in the Army and other positions in the party. This led to his dismissal in the party.

1980 - Many Caprivian started coming back home because of the escalating differences between SWAPO and      CANU members which was indefensible.

1985 - Mr Mishake Muyongo returned back in the Caprivi with Mr G.M. Mwilima, Mr G. Siyongo and Mr D. Mutabelezi. In the same year a new political party United Political Party (UDP) was formed.      

1989 - Mr Muyongo affiliated UDP to DTA - and he became the president of the DTA umbrella party. Constituency assembly election leading to Namibia Independence.